Formalisation of the Nigerian Artisanal and small-scale miners (ASM) as panacea to curbing revenue losses to the Federation account: TIN ASM as a case study

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Despite abundance of Tin in Nigeria and its current global position as the 6th largest exporter, revenue contribution from the mineral remains abysmally low. It is also a fact to reckon, that Tin production and export was formally dominated by government company, the Nigerian Mining Corporation, Jos. The company was affected by government privatization programs in the 80’s and as a result, Tin production nosedived and remains largely in the hands of Artisanal and Small-Scale Miners (ASM) that operate with low technical capacity, contribute less to the federation and pay little or no attention to statutory requirements

There was the 2005 World Bank assisted reform project, that sets foundation to revamp the Nigerian mining sector once again, namely the “Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources Program (SMMRP)”; which was followed by several other government initiatives geared towards the same objective of addressing the fiscal inefficiency that hinders the sector from contributing meaningfully to the nation’s economic growth’. Foremost among the factors responsible, is the informal ASMs that need vital reformation through formalization process that will group them into registered cooperatives.

Currently, the ASMs dominate over 70% of the Nigerian mining landscape but contribute fraction in terms of revenue to the nation, which is due largely to their informal set-up, hence the need for policy redress.


The research is aimed to understudy the set up and operations of Tin ASMs in order to investigate the underlying factors responsible for the aforementioned challenges with a view to revitalize the ASM subsector by improving its operation and compliance to regulation, while also fast-tracking government’s formalization effort.

Specifically, the research will conduct field assessment of selected Tin ASM sites in Plateau State and make a comparison of the outcomes with relevant provisions in the Nigerian Mining Act 2007, the Nigerian Minerals and Metals Policy and the Nigerian Mining Regulations 2011.

It is envisaged that; this research will enable ZCI and RMAFC to witness the current realities on ground and also share experience on resource governance.

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Ziva Community Initiative has done a lot for women’s career development. ZIVA strives to achieve gender equality and equity. Part of its mission is to advocate for women in the mining sector, providing them with a voice and fostering an environment where women can leave with equity. In keeping up with the campaign theme #EmbraceEquity2023 for the International Women’s Day Celebration (IWDC), ZIVA Community Initiative (ZCI) advocates for women in areas such as innovation, advocacy, partnership, and inclusion of women in all facets of life.